Pregnancy is a process many women dream of. It is the wish of all expectant mothers to bring a healthy individual to the world after the process. Everything that happens directly affects the health of the mother and baby. For this reason, it is very important for expectant mothers to be conscious in order to be able to go through the process in a healthy way. The hormone level of the individual varies according to pre-pregnancy and the expectant mother may be physically or psychologically affected by these hormonal changes. Especially during pregnancy, expectant mothers have to struggle with some health problems such as heartburn, urinary problems, hunger problems and weight problems. What pregnant women should know in order to solve these health problems in the most appropriate way can be listed as follows.
Heartburn during pregnancy
Heartburn and heartburn are one of the most common health problems pregnant women face. The hormonal changes that occur in the body with pregnancy and the baby’s pressure on the stomach trigger these problems. The progesterone hormone secreted especially with the onset of pregnancy causes digestion to slow down. Therefore, the rate of mixing of nutrients into the blood slows down and the duration of food in the stomach increases. All of this causes heartburn and heartburn. In addition, muscle weakness occurs during pregnancy. These weakening also affect the stomach valve, which is a muscle. Since the gastric valve is not completely closed, some acids leak into the esophagus. Depending on these reasons, heartburn occurs. Heartburn in healthy individuals is usually the result of diseases such as gastritis or reflux. Sherbet desserts, chocolate, acidic drinks, onions, tomatoes, garlic, fried dishes, spicy foods, oranges, etc. such foods have the feature of triggering heartburn. Pregnant women should stay away from these foods just like reflux or gastritis patients.
Frequent urination during pregnancy
During pregnancy, the bladder capacity decreases and urine production accelerates due to the effects of hormonal changes and the pressure that the baby creates on the bladder. As a result of these two effects, frequent urination problems may be observed in pregnant women from the first trimester to birth. This situation is considered normal. However, in addition to frequent urination, if symptoms such as feeling pain when urinating, cloudiness in the urine, foaming and bad smell, shivering, fever, urinary tract infection or other health problems may be in question. For this reason, it is beneficial for expectant mothers who experience such symptoms other than frequent urination to apply to health institutions and have the necessary tests done.
Increased appetite during pregnancy
In general, increase in appetite in pregnant women occurs after the third month. This situation continues until the end of the 6th month. In the first 3 months, expectant mothers avoid consuming foods they normally like due to nausea. After these 3 months, the situation reverses and there is an excessive appetite. Considering the whole 9-month period, the most weight gain period coincides with this period. Because after the first difficult months, the expectant mother relaxes and starts to eat more. Due to the increased nutritional needs of the baby, it tends to consume more. However, weight gain should be under doctor’s control and excessive weight gain should be avoided.
Hunger intolerance during pregnancy
It is possible that glucose tolerance may be disturbed during pregnancy. When this situation is combined with unhealthy or unbalanced nutrition, an intolerance to hunger may develop in pregnant women. Foods with a high glycemic index, in other words that increase blood sugar rapidly and subsequently cause a rapid blood sugar drop, significantly trigger hunger intolerance. Pregnant women who experience sweet crises and symptoms such as shaking hands and blackout due to low sugar (hypoglycemia) should first go through a doctor’s control. However, expectant mothers with hunger intolerance should turn to healthier carbohydrate options such as whole grains, soaps and fruits, and legumes with high fiber content instead of sugary foods and purified grains.
Temporary or permanent high blood sugar levels during pregnancy
Although there is no problem such as high blood sugar, insulin resistance or diabetes during the pre-pregnancy period, some expectant mothers may have high sugar levels. Especially in overweight and expectant mothers with a family history of diabetes, this is more likely to occur. If the sugar level in the mother is not controlled, the baby’s being larger than normal brings risks such as premature birth or difficult birth. The high sugar level that develops during pregnancy is called gestational diabetes or gestational sugar. While gestational diabetes can improve after birth, it may turn into type 2 diabetes, especially if the necessary precautions are not taken into account. In an individual who has had a healthy pregnancy, the fasting blood glucose value is expected to be at most 90 mg / dl and the postprandial blood glucose value at most 120 mg / dl. Values above these values indicate that the individual has gestational diabetes. In addition, the 24-28th week of pregnancy. With the sugar loading test (oral glucose intolerance test) performed between 6 weeks and 10 weeks, disorders related to postprandial blood sugar levels and the condition called latent sugar (pre-diabetes) can be easily detected. For this reason, the sugar loading test should be performed within the time period recommended by the physician, and if any sugar level is detected, the recommendations given by the physician should be taken into consideration.
Excessive weight gain during pregnancy
During pregnancy, excessive food consumption may occur due to various situations such as craving, fear that the baby will not develop enough. When excessive weight gain occurs above the weight gain level that should be during pregnancy, the health of the mother and baby may be endangered. Excessive weight gain greatly increases the risk of insulin resistance and gestational diabetes. However, many problems such as low back pain, obesity-related cardiovascular diseases may develop in the mother. For this reason, weight gain should be kept under the control of the physician during the pregnancy process, and insufficient or excessive weight gain should be prevented in order for both the mother and the baby to overcome this process in a healthy way.
Anxiety and other psychological problems during pregnancy
There are many psychological problems that can arise during pregnancy. The reason for this may be the experience or the changing hormonal balances. Especially the fear of pregnant women of losing their babies is at the root of psychological problems. Past unsuccessful pregnancy trials, negative IVF treatments, miscarriage or stillbirth history trigger psychological problems. The expectant mother’s concerns not only about the pregnancy process but also about the postpartum period trigger psychological problems. Anxiety is one of the basic emotions that should be in every individual, enabling human survival. However, the high levels of anxiety negatively affect human psychology. Pregnant individuals may be faced with anxiety if their anxiety increases. In order to prevent this, the support of the environment is very important. However, the expectant mother should distance herself from negative thoughts. Listening to her body during pregnancy, living away from panic, and dreaming about her future baby relieves expectant mothers. Turning away from negative thoughts and turning to positive thoughts always supports the psychological health of the expectant mother.
Excessive nausea, vomiting during pregnancy
The most important problems during pregnancy are excessive nausea and vomiting. Nausea in the first few weeks of pregnancy is a natural part of the process. Nausea can occur at any time of the day, but most often occurs in the morning. For this reason, it is also known as morning sickness in the world. Although it differs in each pregnancy, mild nausea may be aggravated. Increased nausea sometimes causes vomiting. However, from the 3rd month, nausea decreases and disappears over time. Some expectant mothers think that nausea and vomiting affect the baby’s health negatively. However, this is a normal result of the pregnancy process and does not indicate any health problems. On the contrary, expectant mothers who do not experience nausea may also doubt the health of their baby and themselves. This situation is normal like the other and does not require any concern. Although there is a general framework of the pregnancy process, there will definitely be individual differences. If vomiting spreads throughout the pregnancy and the expectant mother loses weight, it is necessary to be examined. Because this situation may be a sign that the mother and baby health may be in danger.
Hypertension during pregnancy
There is also the possibility of gestational hypertension, such as gestational diabetes, during pregnancy. This hypertension problem usually disappears with the termination of pregnancy. However, it is very important to prevent hypertension during pregnancy for mother and baby health. For this purpose, it is useful to measure blood pressure regularly in addition to the recommendations given by the physician. The expectant mother who has hypertension problem can protect both her own health and the health of her baby by paying attention to the foods consumed by her physician. Hypertension that does not resolve spontaneously after pregnancy should be treated. For this reason, it is very important to show the necessary sensitivity to this issue and to be examined during the postnatal period.
Protein loss in urine during pregnancy
It is possible to see some protein in the urine during a normal and healthy pregnancy. Since the permeable structure of the kidneys increases, especially in the last weeks of pregnancy, this situation is considered normal up to certain measures. As long as the protein loss in the urine is not very high, it is kept under control with regular follow-up and does not require any intervention. After the birth, the expectant mother should undergo a general health check. Prospective mothers who still have protein leakage in the urine should be evaluated by nephrologists and necessary diagnostic methods should be applied.
Edema of the skin during pregnancy
During pregnancy, the amount of blood circulating in the veins of expectant mothers increases by approximately 50 percent. Due to the increase in blood volume, dilation occurs in the vessels. Some of the excess fluid also accumulates in the tissues, swelling due to this condition is called edema. In pregnant women, edema may develop in the legs, especially in the feet, or throughout the body. In addition, pregnant women need more water than normal individuals. This water taken helps the pelvic joints to prepare for birth. Some of the water consumed is also stored in the body, and this stored water can cause edema-like appearance and effects. The problem of edema can be greatly reduced with practices such as a healthy diet, meeting protein needs, and doing light exercises.
Preeclampsia and eclampsia during pregnancy
Preeclampsia and eclampsia, which are called pregnancy poisoning, may occur due to the combination of hypertension, excessive protein loss in the urine and excessive edema in expectant mothers during pregnancy. In other words, preeclampsia and eclampsia; Hypertension in pregnant women is a health problem that develops as a result of the combination of urinary protein loss and edema. Although they are rare problems, they are serious problems that may threaten the life of the mother and baby, therefore it is very important to follow up for these conditions during pregnancy. The development of seizures accompanied by confusion or loss of consciousness in expectant mothers diagnosed with preeclampsia is called eclampsia. This situation causes disruption of the blood flow of the expectant mother, thus affecting the health of the baby, which allows it to be fed from the mother’s blood through the placenta. In cases where preeclampsia cannot be controlled, the only solution to prevent eclampsia that causes seizures is to deliver. For this reason, in case of risky situations, the date of birth may need to be put forward in order to prevent eclampsia, which is a more serious condition.