Sunspots are dark brown colored spots that are often seen in people with dark skin. It occurs in sun-exposed areas such as forehead, cheeks, upper lip area, nose, chin, neck and arms. It creates problems for individuals in terms of cosmetics.
Why does sunspot occur?
There are many factors involved in its formation. The two most important factors are genetic predisposition and exposure to ultraviolet (invisible harmful sunlight) rays. Apart from this, pregnancy, birth control drugs, cosmetic applications, drugs and goiter disease are among other reasons. Sun rays not only cause the formation of spots, but also cause the increase of spots with a depressing effect on the formed spots.
Are sun spots in pregnancy different from others?
If spots defined as pigmentation occur during pregnancy, they are called pregnancy mask. Untreated pigmentation is permanent and does not heal on its own. Patients with pigmentation complaints should get information from the dermatologist to determine whether these spots are simple sun spots and the reasons for their formation.
How do sunspots go?
The doctor evaluates the layer of the skin and the degree of the spots, and the treatment options are determined together with the patient according to the result with a special light examination of wood light. Usually a long-term treatment is required.
During pregnancy and puerperium, the treatment is limited to sun protection and cream treatments suitable for this period. As general precautions, the sun should be avoided, cosmetic products and drugs that cause sun sensitivity should be limited. The sunscreen product should be a cream recommended by your doctor, with a factor of at least 15, with both UV-A and UV-B protection, and should be used in all seasons in summer and winter.
Among the chemical peelers that are frequently used for treatment purposes; Products containing hydroquinone, tretinoin, azeleic acid and kojic acid are coming. The treatment period with these agents can take a long time when a single chemical product is used.
Chemical peeling is also effective in the treatment of the disease because with the peeling of the upper layer of the skin, the melanin pigment that is the cause of the stain is gradually lost. Deep peels are not preferred in the treatment due to side effects. Products used for peeling include alpha hydroxy acids (AHA), phenol, beta hydroxy acids, kojic acids and salicylic acids. Chemical peels can be used with topical chemical peels. Depending on the type of peeling agent, treatment is applied between 3-8 sessions. The most common side effects are redness, crusting and skin sensitivity, and these effects regress in 3-10 days.
Freezing treatment known as cryotherapy; It can be applied with liquid nitrogen or carbon dioxide snow. It can reduce pigmentations. The number of sessions may vary depending on the degree of the disease.
Laser application is another option in pigmentation treatment. IPL (intense pulsed light), pulsed dye, Nd: oil, Q-switched alexandrite, erbium oil, argon and cupper vapor laser can be used. It is especially recommended in resistant cases. It is effective by destroying cells containing melanin pigment and peeling off the upper layer of the skin. Cells are renewed again. Sometimes the combination of laser and chemical peeling gives more successful results. Itching, pain, burning, crusting and bruising can be seen as side effects during laser treatment.
Another common spotting is freckling. These patients should avoid the sun, especially in the spring and summer months, and use sunscreens. Laser may be a good treatment option for these people for cosmetic reasons.
Cryotherapy and laser treatment can also be applied to lentigines known as old age or sun spots. In some patients, results can be obtained even in a single session with laser treatment.