The concept of violence, in line with the definition made by the World Health Organization, means that “the exercise of power or authority against another person, a group or a community, and as a result of this, causing or the possibility of causing injury, psychological harm or death on the victim side of violence. found “can be explained as. In this direction, it is mentioned that there are 4 different types of violence: physical, psychological, economic and sexual violence.
What are the causes of violence?
Violence generally occurs as a result of the interaction between psychobiological factors affecting the person and the external environment.
1. Biological Factors:
Studies show that violent tendencies and aggressive behaviors that occur in this direction are generally associated with the limbic system, frontal lobe and temporal lobe.
• Neurotransmitters: Serotonin metabolism is one of the highly effective factors in the emergence of violent behavior. In addition, when the substance called 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid decreases and the levels of norepinephrine and L-dopa increase, it is observed that the tendency to violence and aggressive behaviors increase.
• Limbic System: It can be said that crises and seizures arising from structures in this area of the brain are associated with aggression.
• Endocrine Disorders: Hormonal changes that occur during premenstrual syndrome can lead to aggressive behavior in women. In addition, some brain functions that are suppressed as a result of alcohol use lead to the inhibition of impulse control and decrease in reasoning ability. In this direction, it can be said that alcohol and similar recreational substances increase the tendency to violence to a great extent.
2. Psychosocial Factors:
• Developmental Factors: Children who witness or experience violence during their developmental period are much more likely to be individuals who commit violence in adulthood.
• Environmental Factors: According to the researches, it can be said that crowded living environments increase the tendency to violence, and the weather (for example, the increasing ambient temperature that causes discomfort) has an effect on the violence.
3. Socioeconomic Factors:
• In the results of qualitative studies conducted in this field, it has been revealed that, regardless of factors such as race and economic inequality, severe poverty and marital problems are related to violence.
• Socioeconomic factors that cause deterioration in family structure also cause an increase in the aggressive behavior of children raised in these families.
4. Psychiatric Factors:
• Manic-type bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and paranoid disorders, which are defined as psychotic disorders, may lead to an increase in aggressive behavior. People with this psychiatric disorder tend to use violence against both the environment and themselves.
• Among non-psychotic disorders, people with post-traumatic stress disorder; There is an increase in violent tendency in borderline, paranoid, and antisocial personality disorders, and aggressive behaviors are extremely common in these individuals.
5. Other Factors:
It can be said that aggressive behavior and tendency to violence increase in the presence of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in and after drug use, in some pathological conditions affecting the central nervous system and in adulthood.
In what situations does aggressive behavior occur?
Aggressive behavior that occurs with the increase in violent tendency;
• It is generally seen among married men and women, and this situation plays a major role in spreading domestic violence.
• Recent major changes in an individual’s life can cause stress and internal tension. Situations such as internal pressure, anger and impulsivity that develop in this direction increase the risk of emergence of violent behavior.
• The risk of developing aggressive behavior and violent incidents is higher in environments where there are a lot of male individuals aged 16-25.
• Conditions such as events and persons that increase the mental tension of the individual, the situation of being under threat or pressure, and the safety of life are among the important points that increase the tendency to violence.