What are antibiotics? How should it be used? What are the side effects?

Antibiotic, which has become widespread in recent years and is one of the drugs consumed with the belief that it has a healing effect, although it is not necessary, is a type of medicine that is harmful to the body when not used carefully. In our country, the drug, whose sale is banned in pharmacies unless prescribed by the doctor by the Ministry of Health, is of vital importance in the treatment of some diseases. Particular attention should be paid to the use of antibiotics that adversely affect the healing process of diseases, especially in children, since their unnecessary use reduces body resistance against pathogenic microorganisms.


What are antibiotics?

A Scottish scientist named Sir Aleksander Fleming noticed that bacteria could not survive in the green mold on bread and discovered penicillin, the miracle drug, in 1829. In the future, researchers purify penicillin and enable it to be used in the treatment of bacterial diseases in the 1940s. Today, antibiotics are obtained from living things such as algae, fungus, yeast and mold by chemical or biosynthesis through various microorganisms. In addition to penicillin, teramycin and streptomycin derivative chemicals are all referred to as antibiotic drugs. Antibiotics, meaning “against life” in Latin, are used in the treatment of diseases caused by bacteria, cancer and fungal infections. The biggest misconception about antibiotics is that it is also used in the treatment of viral diseases. Medicines containing antibiotics have no effect on viral illnesses such as colds, flu and common cold. Contrary to popular belief, it does not have an antipyretic effect. When antibiotics are used, the reason for the decrease in fever is due to its therapeutic effect on bacterial infectious disease. Drugs that strengthen the immune system can be used in diseases that develop due to the common cold and attention can be paid to nutrition. Antibiotics used in such diseases have no effect on relieving pain, relieving nasal discharge or cough, and preventing the disease from spreading to other people.


How should antibiotics be used?

The use of antibiotics is recommended by the doctor according to the characteristics of the patient, the effect of the drug and the structure of the bacteria that cause the disease. The doctor applies a sensitivity test to the patient to decide on the antibiotic to be used in the treatment of the disease. In cases where there is no sensitivity test, it evaluates the clinical findings of the patient and chooses the most appropriate antibiotic treatment by combining the findings with experience. Especially in diseases such as gram-negative sepsis, pneumonia and memingitis, the correct selection and correct use of antibiotics are vital. It is important that the selected antibiotic can show the necessary effect for the treatment of the disease, and the drug should be used for the recommended period, in sufficient doses and at appropriate intervals. It makes treatment difficult by causing microorganisms to develop resistance against the drug with random, protective or overused antibiotics. Unless the doctor recommends, by not using unnecessary antibiotics, the resistance of bacteria to the drug can be slowed down and its spread can be prevented. The use of fruit juice or milk together with antibiotics may reduce the effectiveness of the drug. Therefore, it is recommended to consume only water while taking medication. Never use antibiotics prescribed for someone else. Antibiotic drug therapy is individual.


What are the antibiotic side effects?

It is a type of medicine that should be avoided unnecessarily because of its antibiotic side effects, which are vital in the treatment of bacterial diseases. In some people, it can cause problems known as antibiotic allergies. Some people are allergic to antibiotics, especially to antibiotics known as penicillin and cephalosporins. Allergic symptoms such as itching and spills on the skin, difficulty in breathing, sudden low blood pressure, rapid heartbeat, loss of consciousness can be observed. Digestive system disorders such as diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting, bloating, indigestion, loss of appetite and abdominal pain are among the antibiotic damages. While antibiotics destroy harmful bacteria, they also affect the immune system negatively by destroying beneficial bacteria in the intestine that synthesize vitamin K, absorb vitamins and digest food. This condition, which affects the intestinal flora, can lead to metabolic disorders such as obesity or wasting. The use of unnecessary antibiotics, which have an effect on the risk of fatty liver, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, may increase the yeast formation in the vagina and cause serious vaginal disorders. Disruption of the intestinal balance can cause mouth sores, ulcers, thrush and cracks on the lip edges.


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