What are uterine diseases?
In order to define uterine diseases, first of all, the definition of the uterine organ called uterus in medical language and “What is the uterus?” or “What is the uterus?” The question must be answered. The uterus can be defined as the female reproductive organ with the cervix at the far end and the fallopian tubes extending to the ovaries on both sides. The pregnancy state caused by the fertilization of the egg by the sperm, the placement of the fertilized embryo cell in the appropriate position and its healthy development take place in this organ. The baby develops in the uterus during pregnancy and when the moment of birth comes, labor occurs with the contraction of the uterine muscles.
The most common diseases in the organ called the uterus, which is a female reproductive cell, can be listed as uterine prolapse (prolapse of the intrauterine tissues), endometriosis and uterine tumors. Uterine tumors occur in two forms, benign and malignant, and malignant tumors are called uterine cancer or uterine cancer.
What is uterine cancer?
Malignant tumors of the uterus can occur in two ways as endometrial cancer occurring in the endometrial layer and cervix (cervical cancer) occurring in the cervical cells.
- The endometrium layer is a tissue layer that forms the inner surface of the uterus and thickens during pregnancy. Uterine thickening is important for the implantation of the fertilized egg cell in the uterus and the continuation of pregnancy. Tumor tissues occur in this area with the uncontrolled division and proliferation of endometrium cells. Malignant tumor tissues cause endometrial cancer, and these cancer cells often spread to other female reproductive organs. Endometrial cancer can occur due to obesity, diabetes, hypertension, various infections and hormonal effects.
- Another common type of cancer in female reproductive organs is cervical cancer. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), which contacts the cervical cells, causes the cell structure to deteriorate and cancer. This uterine cancer, which occurs frequently in women between the ages of 35-39, can be treated with early diagnosis.
What are the symptoms of uterine cancer?
The first symptoms of endometrial cancer are odorous, bloody or dark vaginal discharge and spotting bleeding. In the later stages of the disease, pain, intense and prolonged menstrual bleeding, edema in the legs and groin area, decrease in urine and increase in blood urea level due to this, excessive weight loss and anemia due to blood loss can be seen.
Symptoms of cervical cancer can be listed as irregular vaginal bleeding, edema in the legs and groin area, bleeding problem after sexual intercourse, blood in urine or stool, pain, bloody and foul-smelling discharge.
How is uterine cancer diagnosed?
- In order to make a definitive diagnosis in uterine cancers, a piece of tissue should be taken from the uterus by curettage and this piece should be evaluated by a pathologist in a clinical setting. After the definitive diagnosis of cancer is made, the behavior of the cancer cells in this tissue is examined and uterine cancer is staged. After the staging stage, additional examinations can be performed to determine the spread potential of the cancer, its behavior, and other tissues at risk.
What are the treatment methods for uterine cancer?
The most preferred method in surgical treatment is hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) operation. With this operation, the whole or a certain part of the uterus is removed and all tissue parts removed after the operation are examined by pathologists. The spread rate of the disease is determined as a result of the pathological evaluations. If the cancer cells have not spread outside the uterus, a hysterectomy operation provides a definitive solution. However, if cancer cells have spread to other organs or lymph tissues, radiation (radiation) therapy or chemotherapy (drug) treatment is applied after surgical treatment.