What is a pesticide? What are its types, effects and harms?

Materials and methods such as chemicals, some organic components, disinfectants used to eliminate the harmful effects of bacteria, viruses and insects are called “Pesticides”.

Although the name seems foreign to us, the pesticides we encounter a lot in our lives; In addition to the fact that vegetables and fruits are grown in nature without being damaged and our living spaces are purified from harmful microorganisms, they can pose a great threat to human health due to incorrect use.

Although there are many pesticides that have been used for many years in human history, today chemical pesticides occupy the biggest place.



Pesticide types


  • Bactericide: Bactericides
  • Ahicide: Bird killers
  • Insacticide: Substances used against insects and pests
  • Fungicide: Substances used against fungi
  • Herbicide: Substances used against weeds
  • Mollusid: Substances used against mollusks
  • Rodenside: Substances used against rodents
  • Nematicide: Substances used against nematodes
  • Acaricide (Miticid): Substances used against mites
  • Defoliants: Defoliants


Effects and harms of pesticides

Pesticides, which are widely used today in the form of spray, adhere to the surfaces of vegetables and fruits as a result of adsorption. Sometimes, these foods that are consumed raw cannot be purified enough. In such cases, exposure occurs through the digestive system.

Pesticides, in some cases, enter our bloodstream and reach our vital organs and systems by accidentally inhaling or absorbing substances such as insecticides through the skin as a result of contact. After this situation, some effects can be seen in the short term or long term.

Acute poisoning and allergic reactions are the first things that come to mind when we think of short-term effects caused by exposure to pesticides. Especially those who are engaged in agricultural work are at great risk. Many cases of pesticide poisoning occur as a result of careless and careless spraying. The main symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning are:


  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Sweating
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Palpitation
  • It can be counted as involuntary contractions.


If you suspect such a situation in yourself or a relative, it is very important that you apply to a health institution immediately. Because acute pesticide poisoning can result in death if not intervened in time.
In addition to these symptoms, laboratory tests (blood tests, etc.) are used in the diagnosis of acute pesticide poisoning. If the exposed substance can be determined, treatment is performed by using the necessary antidote (antidote).

Likewise, life-threatening can occur in allergic reactions due to pesticides. Symptoms of an allergic reaction include sudden lesions on the skin and breathing difficulties.

The main long-term effects are genetic damage and related cancers, especially in people who are chronically exposed. In addition, impairments occur in the liver, kidneys and muscular systems.

In addition to these effects, anomalies are observed in the fetus exposed to these substances in the womb. Sometimes, pregnancy can result in miscarriage.



What should we do to be protected?

Precautions must be taken to avoid the harmful effects of pesticides. Failure to apply appropriate spraying materials and experts in this field and carelessness often cause intense pesticide exposure. If pesticides are not used in accordance with the usage information given on their package and in cases where they are used more than necessary, protective toxic doses may occur and acute poisoning. Pesticides should never be inhaled directly or contact with these substances should be avoided. It is absolutely necessary to wear a mask and protective gloves to cover the mouth and nose during spraying. In order not to be exposed to pesticides for a longer time, the residues that appear after spraying should be removed from both our own living space and other living areas. Make sure that fruits and vegetables are free of these substances. Another point to be considered is that substances such as pesticides, especially found in homes, are kept out of the reach of children.

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