What is bladder cancer? What are the symptoms and treatment methods?

Bladder cancer, which is the most common type of cancer after prostate cancer in the urology system, is seen 4 times more in men than in women. The cancer type, which is generally seen in people over the age of 40, can be seen at much lower ages in countries where cigarette consumption is common.



What does bladder mean?

The bladder, also known as the urinary bladder or urinary bladder, is located in the lower part of the abdomen and is a spherical organ in which urine accumulates. The bladder wall consists of intertwined and irregular muscle fibers with an elastic structure. The bladder, which looks like a small balloon, can expand as urine accumulates thanks to the muscle fibers it contains. The kidneys use small ducts called ureters to remove toxins from the body after cleansing them from the blood. Urine comes to the bladder through small channels and is stored here until it is thrown out of the body. The bladder, whose capacity is filled, discharges urine from the body through the urethra channel.



Where are the kidneys?

Kidneys located at the back of the abdomen of the body are located symmetrically on the right and left sides of the upper waist. A healthy person has 2 kidneys. The right kidney is adjacent to the liver and duodenum in front, the adrenal glands at the top and the large intestine below. The left kidney is adjacent to the stomach and small intestine in front, adrenal glands, spleen and pancreas above. Kidneys send urine, filtered by small channels, to the bladder.



Mesane tümörü nedir?

Bladder tumor, which develops especially due to the control proliferation of cells on the inner surface of the bladder, causes a mass in the urinary bladder. Bladder cancer has 3 types;

Uropithelial carcinoma: It is a type of cancer seen in the cells lining the bladder wall.
Squamous cell carcinoma: It is a type of cancer that consists of squamous epithelial cells of the bladder exposed to long-term infection or irritation.
Adenocarcinoma: It is a type of cancer seen in the secreting cells in the bladder. It occurs as a result of the abnormal proliferation of cells responsible for mucus in the bladder wall.


What are bladder cancer?

The two most important causes of bladder cancer: smoking and exposure to chemicals. Chemicals in cigarettes enter the bloodstream, filter through the kidneys and take their place in the urine accumulated in the bladder. These substances increase the risk of cancer by disrupting the structure of the cells here. In addition, bladder infections and chemotherapy drugs may increase the risk of bladder cancer.



What are the symptoms of bladder cancer?

The most common bladder cancer symptom is blood in the urine. This bleeding, called hematuria, may be a sign of bladder injury. Symptoms of bleeding in urine that are not accompanied by pain are not continuous and may continue intermittently. In addition to this symptom, symptoms such as difficulty urinating, blood clots coming with urine and burning while urinating may be the first signs of bladder cancer.



How is bladder cancer diagnosed?

When urinary bleeding is seen, bladder cancer is suspected and the cause of the bleeding is determined primarily by imaging methods. The most successful method in determining the diagnosis of bladder cancer is cystoscopy. It is also possible to take samples from suspicious tissue in the cystoscopy method, in which the inside of the bladder is imaged with a thin light instrument used in the urinary tract. At the same time, tumorous structures in the bladder can be cleaned during this procedure.


How is bladder cancer treated?

Bladder cancer treatment is performed according to the stage of the disease, the size and type of the tumor. Low-grade cancer cells formed on the surface of the bladder wall can be removed by TUR (cleaning the tumor with closed method) treatment performed together with cystoscopy. It is important to follow this process at regular intervals afterwards. Medication can also be given to high-grade tumorous tissues during the TUR procedure. Bladder removal is required in the treatment of cancer that progresses to muscle tissue but does not spread to other tissues. With this procedure called radical cystectomy, the bladder, surrounding lymph nodes and prostate are removed. A new bladder is made using the small intestines to store urine. Radio therapy and chemotherapy procedures are performed for some types of bladder cancer.

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