Our awareness of the environment and our reactions to adapt to the environment can be through bioelectrical processes.
Physical (light, heat, burning, stinging, pain, contact, pressure, etc.) and chemical factors (compounds that create taste and odor) and factors that indicate the organism’s condition (position, strain, gravity, hunger, etc.) They are converted into electrical signals and transferred to the relevant sensory nerves. These sensory nerves transmit the electrical signal it receives to the central nervous system through the spinal cord, the signals are evaluated there, compared with those in the memory and perceived as sensation.
These sensations perceived in the organism determine the state of the organism against the environment and reactions occur in the organism in order to adapt to the environment.
The most common reaction is movement. The electrical signals from the generator cells responsible for movement in the brain are transmitted to the spinal cord and the related muscles by means of nerve wires originating from there.
We can compare the nerves that transmit these sensory and movement signals to telephone cables where thousands of insulated conductive wires come together.
The motion of our finger to bend the way we want; If it is explained in computer language, it can be achieved by making a healthy exchange of millions of bits of information per second. In order to achieve this, the electrical signal passing through the nerve wires must be of a certain speed and quality, the electrical signal flow from the nerves to the muscles and the muscles must have a certain standard in their electrical behavior.
Here, electroneurophysiology is the laboratory branch of neurology, which is used to examine the electrical conduction in sensory and motor conduction pathways, reflex responses in these pathways, excessive electrical signals from motor nerves to muscles, and electrical behavior in muscles, measuring and evaluating electrical conditions in these elements and detecting abnormal findings and revealing what pathology is. and EMG examinations are one of these methods.
What is done in EMG examinations?
• Measuring nerve conduction velocities of sensory nerves, motor nerves, and both, measurement of amplitudes of sensory potential and muscle action potentials, conduction disturbance local (entrapment neuropathies nerve injuries) and general (polyneuropathies)
• Measurement and temporal evaluation of reflex arc (H) and motor late responses (F), comparison with opposite arm or leg
• Evaluation of muscle resting activities, motor unit potentials and maximal contraction samples by needle electromyography method, and evaluation of nerve damage (motor neuron diseases, neck hernia, entrapment neuropathies, nerve injury or cuts) or diseases of the muscles themselves
• Evaluation of muscle nerve junction diseases (myastania gravis, Botulism – conserved disease- etc.) evaluating electrical excess from nerves to muscles
• By doing this, the degrees of these diseases are determined and the clinician is informed about this issue and they are helped to evaluate the treatment options.
In what situations is an EMG examination applied?
• Waist and neck hernias,
• Numbness in the fifties, pain, burning
• Numbness and weakness in arms, legs,
• Numbness in diabetes
• Numbness in dialysis patients
• Muscle melting and streaking
• Excessive muscle contraction,
• Muscle pains
• Occasional weakness attacks
• Strength decreases, especially later in the day, eyelid drops
• Facial paralysis
• Weakness in certain muscle groups
• Movement and sensory defects due to accidents and piercing gun injuries
• Movement and sensory defects due to injections
• Movement and sensory defects due to poisoning and drugs