What is eye pressure (glaucoma)? What are the symptoms and treatment methods?

Glaucoma, also known as “black water” colloquially, is a common eye disease that usually progresses secretly without symptoms. If left untreated, it can cause permanent vision loss. In glaucoma, the fluid pressure in the eye is high enough to damage the optic nerve necessary for vision.



Who has eye pressure (glaucoma)?

Eye pressure (glaucoma) can be seen at any age. However, since it is more common in patients over the age of 40, these patients should undergo eye pressure control once a year. Those who have eye pressure in their family should be checked more frequently.


What are the symptoms of eye pressure (glaucoma)?

Most of the patients do not have any symptoms. In the early period, some patients have headaches that become evident in the morning, blurred vision from time to time, light rings around the lights at night, pain around the eyes while watching television, etc. symptoms may occur.

Eye pressure (glaucoma) is only noticed by many patients in the later stages and when significant vision loss occurs. Glaucoma disease in family members increases the risk of diabetes, myopia, long-term cortisone therapy, eye injuries and migraine glaucoma.

Another type of glaucoma is narrow-angle glaucoma, which occurs suddenly with a crisis in advanced ages. It occurs with severe eye pain, decreased vision, redness of the eye, and nausea and vomiting. It requires urgent treatment. In the species observed in infancy and childhood, eye watering, sensitivity to light and enlargement of the eye are observed.


What is the importance of early diagnosis in eye pressure (Glaucoma)?

Early diagnosis is important because eye pressure (glaucoma) does not return after vision loss occurs. Abnormal intraocular pressure increase detected during normal eye examination may be the first sign of the disease. Periodic examinations by an ophthalmologist are the best method for early diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma. Glaucoma is diagnosed with a careful eye exam. In the diagnostic eye examination, the ophthalmologist measures the patient’s intraocular pressure with a device called “tonometer”. It examines the eye nerves by making the eye fundus examination. If it deems necessary, it makes a visual field test to determine whether there is a loss in the field of vision. Further examinations such as RNFL, NFA or HRT can also be performed to examine the visual nerve and nerve fiber layer.


How is eye pressure (glaucoma) treated?

Eye pressure (glaucoma) cannot be completely cured and eliminated after diagnosis; However, in many cases, with appropriate treatment, it can be successfully controlled and the progression of vision loss can be prevented.

Open angle glaucoma is primarily treated with various medications that lower intraocular pressure. Surgical treatments can be applied in resistant cases or according to the glaucoma type. Some patients may require more than one surgical intervention.

In the narrow angle type that occurs with the crisis, the treatment is very urgent. Laser treatments can be used in uncontrolled glaucoma or closed angle glaucoma.

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