Hypertrophy is defined as the overdevelopment of a tissue or organ. The answer to the question “What does hypertrophy mean?” Is usually answered as the increase in volume in the muscle cells in the body. Although there is no increase in the number of muscle cells in hypertrophy, the cells become larger and increase muscle mass.
Hypertrophy can occur for a variety of reasons. This situation, in which the tissue or organ volume increases without increasing the number of cells, can be observed in different organs. Hyperplasia is the condition in which the tissue or organ volume grows due to the increase in the number of cells that make up the relevant structure. While cell volumes increase in hypertrophy, and in hyperplasia, cell sizes remain approximately the same, the increase in cell number constitutes the basis of organ growth. Hypertrophy occurs in cell types such as muscle cells that have reduced or completely lost the ability to divide in the adult body. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy; Although there are two separate mechanisms, it can play a role together in events such as uterine growth due to hormonal changes during pregnancy. Hypertrophy, which can occur as a result of different effects in different organs, is a mechanism that makes it easier for organs to adapt to the situation they are in.
How is the hypertrophy seen in the uterus during pregnancy?
During pregnancy, the uterus expands due to the growth of the fetus inside. The uterus, which is about the size of an orange before pregnancy, can reach the size of a large watermelon before birth. There are many different mechanisms for the uterus to undergo such great changes. The main component of uterine growth during pregnancy is the enlargement of the layer of the uterus called “myometrium”. This layer; It consists of mainly smooth muscle, blood and lymph vessels, immune system elements and connective tissue. It is the main part of the uterus that allows the baby to come out by contracting during birth.
The smooth muscle cells in the myometrium layer divide and multiply in the first weeks of pregnancy (hyperplasia). At this stage, hypertrophy has less effect on uterine growth. In the later stages of pregnancy, the stresses on the myometrium layer cause the smooth muscle cells to go into hypertrophy. Thus, the uterus is enlarged with the contributions of both hyperplasia and hypertrophy. During pregnancy, the size of the uterus can increase to 500 to 1000 times its onset. Increased volume of the uterus; While providing the necessary space for the development of the fetus, the strengthening of the myometrium layer at the same time increases the strength of the contraction during delivery and makes the birth easier. These changes in the uterus during pregnancy occur with the contribution of many different factors, especially hormonal effects.
What causes hypertrophy in the heart?
Cardiac hypertrophy, or heart hypertrophy, is the abnormal growth or thickening of the heart muscle. It can be seen physiologically in athletes who do intense training, as well as pathologically in people with various heart diseases.
Cardiac hypertrophy often occurs in the left ventricle, the part of the heart where blood is actually pumped into the body. As the left ventricle works harder to pump blood to the body, thickening of the ventricular wall occurs over time. This thickening can disrupt the heart’s structure and prevent it from functioning properly. It may cause the heart to lose its elastic structure and become stiff. By exerting pressure on the coronary vessels, which are the vessels that nourish the heart, it can lead to occlusion of the vessel. As a result, a heart attack may occur.
In cases such as high blood pressure, heart valve diseases, various genetic diseases that disrupt the heart structure, the heart needs to contract stronger in order to distribute the necessary blood to the tissues. These strong contractions cause thickening of the heart muscle after a while. This hypertrophy, which basically develops as an adaptation mechanism to increase the strength of the heart, may cause further decline in heart functions after a while. Heart hypertrophy; It can manifest itself with symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, chest pain, palpitations, and fainting. It would be beneficial for people who show one or more of these symptoms to consult a cardiologist who is experienced in terms of underlying diseases that may cause hypertrophy, especially heart hypertrophy, and other heart diseases.
What is muscle hypertrophy?
It is the type in which hypertrophy is seen in structures such as arm or leg muscles. It is a topic of interest especially for athletes and bodybuilders.
There are two different types of muscular hypertrophy, sarcoplasmic and myofibrils. Sarcoplasmic hypertrophy increases endurance and energy during exercise, while myofibrillar hypertrophy increases muscle strength and speed. While the development of glycogen stores, which is the energy source in the muscle in the sarcoplasmic type, is observed, in the myofibrillar type of muscle, the development of the parts that are mainly responsible for the contraction are in question.
Hypertrophy, which is an important mechanism in muscle building, occurs depending on various factors. For example, weight lifting is an exercise that people who want to build muscle often use. Factors such as how much weight lifting and how many times it is done affect the amount of muscle hypertrophy. Exercises using a light weight for age and gender require multiple repetitions to build muscle. However, exercise with a heavy load can have a faster and more efficient effect on muscle development.
Mechanical damage and metabolic fatigue are needed for muscle hypertrophy to develop. For example, in weight lifting; The muscle group used in exercise applies a force to overcome the resistance caused by the weight. Damage occurs to the muscle fibers that apply this force. Muscle proteins, in which mechanical damage occurs, provide a repair response in the body. Repair response plays an important role in the development of hypertrophy. Metabolic fatigue occurs due to the reduction of ATP molecule, which is the main energy source in muscle. Muscles cannot find enough energy to contract. Metabolic fatigue is also a factor that plays a role in the development of hypertrophy. Mechanical damage of muscle fibers due to contraction and metabolic fatigue caused by decreased energy in the muscle are two very important factors for muscle gain. Many different ways can be tried to ensure proper progress of muscle hypertrophy and increase in muscle mass. Exercise programs to be made in accordance with the age, gender, health status and daily life of the person; It allows to achieve the desired result. While preparing the exercise program, it is useful to leave enough space between training times to regenerate muscles. Providing proper regeneration in muscles allows the progress of muscle gain more effectively. In addition, doing different types of exercises during training helps different muscle groups in the body to work. Thus, an improvement is observed in the muscles throughout the body rather than the muscle group in a single region. It may be helpful to work with a personal trainer to help the muscle building process progress more effectively. Getting help from an experienced professional for the targeted result can provide quicker and more efficient results.
In addition to exercise, nutrition is also of great importance in building muscle. Preparing a diet specific to the person’s needs in order to reach the target level helps the process to run more effectively. A diet program to be prepared for personal characteristics and the desired result in muscle building allows muscle growth to progress faster. It is beneficial for people who are interested in muscle building to consult experts in this field and to follow the diet program prepared according to them.
In order to build muscle, many different elements must be combined in a balanced and orderly manner. In order to achieve maximum results in muscle gain, it is beneficial to consult experts in both health, exercise and nutrition and to apply the recommendations of the experts.