What is ovarian cancer? What are the symptoms and treatment methods?

What is an ovary?

The ovaries, which are located on both sides of the uterus and whose functions are to produce eggs and to secrete female sex hormone, are a pair of organs commonly referred to as the ovary. In each menstrual period, an egg is produced by these organs and sent to the uterus through a channel called the fallopian tube. When the ovary is in this channel, it combines with the sperm and fertilization occurs, pregnancy occurs and menstrual bleeding is not experienced. However, if fertilization is not achieved, the produced egg cell does not settle in the uterus and the uterine wall expanded with the egg cell is thrown out of the body by bleeding. The hormones called estrogen and progesterone, which enable this cycle to take place, are also secreted by the ovaries and the healthy menstrual cycle is controlled by these hormones.

Ovarian diseases in women are quite common diseases that can occur in various ways such as ovarian cyst, ovarian cancer or ovarian tumor. It is very important to have sufficient information about these diseases and their symptoms, which can be effectively treated with early diagnosis.



What is a cyst in the ovary?

Cyst tissues, which can be defined as water-filled vesicles, are generally non-pathological tumor tissues that do not grow or spread. It is necessary to have detailed information about this ovarian and uterine cyst, which can lead to polycystic ovarian disease if left untreated and can cause infertility by preventing ovulation, timely recognition of signs and symptoms, and early treatment options should be evaluated. Severe menstrual pain and irregular bleeding are considered symptoms of cysts in the ovary or uterus.



What is ovarian cancer?

In order to define ovarian cancer, first of all, the definition of cancer and tumor tissues, “What is cancer / ca?” and “what is a tumor?” questions must be answered correctly. Cancer (ca) can be defined as the uncontrolled and irregular division and proliferation of cells of a particular organ or tissue. Tumors, on the other hand, are tissue wholes formed as a result of the accumulation of cells that proliferate with cancer. After the tumor tissue is formed, if the cells do not continue to divide or spread to other organs of the body, then cancer is not mentioned and the tissue formed is called a benign tumor. If the tumor tissue, which is formed as a result of the cells showing the ability to become cancerous, that is, irregular and uncontrolled proliferation, continues to divide and spreads to other body organs, then malignant tumors, namely cancer disease, are mentioned at this point.

This uncontrolled proliferation in ovarian cells and the resulting malignant tumor formation is defined as ovarian cancer. Among these cancers, epithelial ovarian cancer is the most common and its incidence is 1 in 55 women. The disease can be treated with early diagnosis, but since it does not cause major complaints in the initial stages, it progresses insidiously. Therefore, detailed information about the symptoms of the initial stages should be obtained and all complaints should be evaluated in terms of ovarian cancer.



What are the symptoms of ovarian cancer?

The most common complaints that occur with ovarian cancers can be listed as bloating problem, discomfort especially in the lower part of the abdomen, decreased appetite or constant feeling of satiety, indigestion, nausea and weight loss. In some cases, the cancer does not cause any complaints until it progresses, and it becomes difficult to evaluate some problems as signs of ovarian cancer. In such cases, it is recommended that women pay attention to gynecological examinations and regularly go to a doctor to prevent the progression of the disease and to apply effective treatment methods at the right time.



How is ovarian cancer diagnosed?

The complaints of the patient are evaluated by the gynecologist and the ovaries are examined in detail with ultrasonography. However, if there are tumor cells in the body, a blood test is performed to measure the protein level called ca 125. However, the increase in this protein alone is not enough to diagnose cancer. In order to make the most accurate diagnosis of cancer, the tissue cell taken from the ovary by “biopsy” should be examined.



What are the treatment methods for ovarian cancer?

For the treatment of ovarian cancer, the spread of the disease, the age of the patient and the stage of the cancer are extremely important. The most common treatment method is surgical removal of cancerous tissues and subsequent chemotherapy (drug) treatment. In some cases, the patient’s complaints are brought under control with radiation therapy called radiotherapy.


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