It is the lateral curvature of the spine that can be seen mostly in the thoracic and / or lumbar regions. It can be seen alone or together with kyphosis (hump; an abnormal curvature from back to front) (Kyphoscoliosis). In the normal spine, the vertebrae (bones that make up the spine) that lie straight from top to bottom rotate to the right, left and / or around their own axis in the scoliosis spine. The disease is more common in girls. Scoliosis exceeding 30 degrees is seen ten times more often in young girls compared to boys. The exact number is not known exactly along scoliosis is thought to be about 2.5 million patients in Turkey. Scoliosis is the lateral curvature of the back or lumbar regions of the spine. Sometimes it is accompanied by an increase in the normal hump in the back or in the cupping of the waist. The cause of scoliosis formation; It can be due to many different reasons. Congenital, spastic children may be due to an idiopathic infection or tumor. Familial predisposition is present in all idiopathic children.
Why does scoliosis occur?
Scoliosis can occur for many different reasons. However, the scoliosis that we frequently encounter in our daily life are mostly those that occur in the 10s and the cause is not known (idiopathic) scoliosis and congenital (congenital) scoliosis that arise due to factors in the mother’s womb. It is thought that the main factors in congenital scoliosis are infections, diabetes and some vitamin deficiencies during pregnancy.
The main types of scoliosis
• Congenital (congenital); often due to a developmental defect in the spine or fused ribs,
• It can occur as a result of paralysis of the muscles due to conditions such as polio (polio), cerebral palsy, or muscular dystrophy.
• Unknown cause (Idiopathic); It can occur in a previously smooth spine for an unknown reason.
• Sideways curvature of the spine
• Lateral and forward curvature of the spine
• One shoulder (right-left) moving forward
• Symmetrical shoulders and hips
• Presence of a second curve compensating for the first curvature
• Back and / or low back pain
• Shortness of breath, tiredness
It is essential that scoliosis is detected early and referred to a physical therapy and rehabilitation clinic or hospital where scoliosis will be followed up. Many scoliosis can be treated without surgical intervention if detected before it progresses. For him, school screenings are very important. Exercises performed as treatment should not be considered as the only treatment option. In other words, you cannot give the patient his / her exercise programs and send them. Because, according to the degree of curvature in these patients, brace (orthosis) should be performed or they should be directed to surgery if necessary. If well-done brace can be cooperated with the patient and the patient’s family, 70 percent improvement can be achieved.
The diagnosis is made according to both examination findings and radiological examinations (X-ray, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Computed Tomography, etc.). During physical examination, when the patient leans forward, the curvature appears more pronounced than in a standing position. Spine x-rays in different positions (Anteroposterior, lateral, tilting to the sides,…) and scoliosometer (an instrument that measures the curvature of the spine) are the most important diagnostic methods used in determining the extent of scoliosis.
Effective in deciding treatment; There are many factors such as the amount of curvature (degree), the type of scoliosis, and the stage of bone growth. Since early treatment affects the results positively, early diagnosis is very important in the success of the treatment of scoliosis patients.
Scoliosis is diagnosed with an x-ray graphic showing the whole spine, and MRI is required to investigate whether there is any other problem. The treatment may be different for each patient, but basically it may vary according to the progression rate of scoliosis, the degree of curvature and the presence of additional pathologies.
Surgery is the most appropriate treatment method for patients whose curvature is over 20 degrees (40 °). In surgical treatment, the spine is straightened with the help of screws and rods placed in the back and / or waist. Nowadays, advances in surgical techniques and auxiliary methods such as imaging the spinal cord functions applied during surgery (neuromonitorization) are very useful in reducing the problems that may occur in the patient during surgery and increase the success of the surgery. Our clinic has these infrastructures in modern spine surgery centers, and scoliosis surgeries are successfully performed in our clinic.
Corset Treatment: It is applied to children who are ironed at 25 degrees and continue to grow. The effect of the corset is not effective in curvatures over 40 degrees and completing its growth.
Surgery is the most appropriate method of treatment in patients with continued growth and curvature above 40 degrees (> 40 °). Surgical treatment is performed to prevent complications and cosmetic results in these curvatures.
Congenital scoliosis treatment can be performed at younger ages and degrees. In the surgical treatment, straightening of the spine is performed with the help of screws and rods placed in the back and / or waist. Nowadays, advances in surgical techniques and auxiliary methods such as imaging the spinal cord functions applied during surgery (neuromonitorization) are very useful in reducing the problems that may occur in the patient during surgery and increase the success of the surgery. Our clinic has these infrastructures in modern spine surgery centers, and scoliosis surgeries are successfully performed in our clinic.