The proper functioning of all body functions takes place through chemical and electrical communication between organs and systems. This communication is also important for the body to adapt to changes in the environment.
The nervous system, which provides electrical communication, can carry information between different parts of the body in less than 1 second. Chemical communication through hormones takes place between the production of the hormone, its release into the bloodstream, its arrival at the target organ and its effect on that tissue.
These two communication systems maintain both the control of body functions and their functioning in complete harmony.
What is a hormone?
Hormones are chemical substances secreted by various glands, which are considered as endocrine glands. The hypothalamus, pineal gland, adrenal (adrenal) gland, reproductive organs such as ovaries and testicles, thyroid gland and pancreas are examples of endocrine tissues in the body. Hormones are released into the bloodstream after being synthesized in gland structures stimulated by various factors. The interaction of the hormones moving towards the target cell in free state with which cell takes place with the presence of specialized receptor structures on the surface of that cell. The interaction of the hormone and its specific receptor structure activates some biochemical functions in the cell or may regulate existing functions.
What is the endocrine?
Many hormones work in harmony and take part in various functions of the body. Growth, development, metabolism, electrolyte balance and reproductive function are mainly under the control of hormones. Hormone-synthesizing glands are called “endocrine glands” and they function within the endocrine system. Therefore, in response to the question of what is endocrine, the answer is that endocrine is everything related to hormones and their effects.
There are many glands in the body that synthesize hormones. The production and release of these hormones into the bloodstream is generally regulated by the central nervous system called the hypothalamus. In addition to hormone release, the adjustment of body temperature, hunger and satiety balance, sexuality and emotional responses in the body are also under the control of the hypothalamus.
The pituitary gland is a nervous system structure that regulates the functioning of many tissues, especially the thyroid, reproductive system and adrenal gland, working under the control of the hypothalamus through hormones secreted.
This gland is examined in 2 parts, front and back in adults. A large number of hormones are secreted from the anterior part of the pituitary gland. Growth hormone (GH) responsible for the growth and development of body tissues, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) responsible for the functioning of the thyroid gland, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which regulates the functions of the adrenal glands, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) that ensures the maturation of reproductive cells and luteinizing hormone that stimulates the production of sex hormones. hormone (LH) is among the hormones secreted from the anterior part of the pituitary gland.
Two hormones are secreted from the posterior part of the pituitary gland. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which increases water retention in the body and reduces urine, and oxytocin hormone, which stimulates milk secretion in the breast tissue in women, forms 2 hormones secreted from the posterior part of the pituitary gland.
Imbalances related to the ADH hormone can cause diabetes insipidus, known as sugar free diabetes. The deficiency of growth hormone, especially during the development period, results in dwarfism, while the excess of it causes a disease table called acromegaly in which the limbs become overgrown.
Care should be taken as cushing disease may occur with excessive production of ACTH hormone, which can cause serious consequences for the person.
There are a total of 2 adrenal glands in the body on the right and left sides. These pyramid-shaped endocrine glands enable the production of steroid hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone. Aldosterone hormone maintains sodium and potassium balance in the body and plays a role in the regulation of blood pressure. Cortisol plays a role in the body’s response to stress factors, together with the hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline, which are other hormones secreted from this gland. Cortisol also functions in the regulation of metabolism and regulation of blood sugar levels.
Addison’s disease, which occurs when the defense system acts against this gland and causes damage to these structures, is a rare autoimmune disease.
The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped structure in the neck region just in front of the trachea and wrapped on 3 sides of it. Thyroid hormones called T3 and T4 are hormones that function throughout the body. Cells produce energy using oxygen and carbohydrates under the control of these hormones. Apart from the regulation of metabolic rate, thyroid hormones are among the important hormones in growth and development.
Calcitonin is another hormone secreted from the thyroid gland. Calcitonin hormone mediates the passage of calcium in the bloodstream to the bones.
Disease tables called hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism may occur in problems related to the level of hormones produced in the thyroid gland. Thyroid hormones produced in excess in hyperthyroidism can cause irritability, palpitations, fatigue, weight loss, and problems with sleep. In the case of hypothyroidism, which occurs when the gland produces less hormones than normal, complaints such as sensitivity to cold, depression, sexual reluctance, hair loss and involuntary weight loss may occur.
Ovary and Testis
The ovaries are the structures responsible for the production of the egg, which does not have any canals and is a reproductive cell in women. During the ovulation period called ovulation, the egg cell is released from the follicle structure formed by the effect of hormones secreted from the pituitary gland. Completing its maturation and becoming free, the egg moves into the uterus through the structure called the fallopian tube. Fallopian tube is the structure where the egg, which is the female reproductive cell, and the sperm, which is the male reproductive cell, unite and the zygote is formed. Hormones called estrogen and progesterone are secreted from the ovaries and the structures inside. These hormones control the development of the menstrual cycle and female sex organs every month. The testicles are oval-shaped organs that are outside of the body in men and enable the production of sperm, the male reproductive cell. Since the sperm, which is a male reproductive cell, is adversely affected by body temperature, the testicular structures located outside of the body allow the storage of the sperm produced until the moment of ejaculation. Apart from these functions, the testicles also function to synthesize a hormone called testosterone. Testosterone hormone is involved in the realization of changes in male sexual drive, such as male body hair growth and muscle-bone mass increase.
The pancreas is an organ that is vital for the functions of the digestive system with the enzymes it produces, as well as an organ that functions in many functions of the body with the hormones it secretes. Insulin and glucagon hormone secreted from this organ are mainly involved in adjusting the blood sugar level. Insulin is secreted from the pancreas following meals, as it reduces high blood sugar. In the presence of this hormone, nutrients that enter the bloodstream after digestion are stimulated to be taken by cells and used in energy production. Diabetes, which occurs in insulin hormone deficiency, is an important health problem that can cause damage to many organs due to the constant high blood sugar of the person.
What is child endocrine?
The endocrine system includes the endocrine glands and the hormones secreted by these glands. Internal medicine physicians who are trained and specialists in diseases related to the endocrine system are called endocrine doctors.
The endocrine department, which continues to serve in many health institutions, is a sub-branch of the pediatrics department in the lower age groups and is called the child endocrine.