What is urinary incontinence? What are the symptoms, types and treatment methods?

The bladder is the sac where urine from our kidneys accumulates. It is known as the urinary bladder or urine bag among the people. The contraction and relaxation of the muscles of the bladder is controlled by both the nerves in that area and the brain. Normal bladder stretches as urine is filled, there is no pressure increase due to this. The muscles at the lower end of the bladder keep the mouth of the bladder closed. After the bladder is a channel called the urethra. Control of the urethra is provided by hormones.

Urinary incontinence is a state of uncontrollable and involuntary urinary incontinence. Its medical name is urinary incontinence. Although it can occur at any age, it is more common in older ages. If it recurs continuously, it is considered a disease. Urinary incontinence disrupts the life comfort of the person and can lead to social and psychological problems. Although urinary incontinence can be seen in both genders, it is more common in women.

 

Types of urinary incontinence

Stress incontinence: It is a state of incontinence that occurs when the pressure in the bladder increases, such as laughing, sneezing, coughing, lifting heavy objects. It depends on nerve and muscle weakness.

Urgency type urinary incontinence: Here, the patient suddenly gets squeezed into the urine and urinates uncontrollably. There is uncontrolled contraction of the bladder.

Mix tip: Both situations exist at the same time.

What are the causes of urinary incontinence?

The situations listed below are among the common causes of urinary incontinence:

 

  • Obesity,
  • Advancing age,
  • Urinary bladder prolapse,
  • Genetic,
  • Constipation,
  • Cystitis,
  • Vaginal infections,
  • Stones in the urinary tract or kidney
  • Diabetes,
  • Menopause,
  • Difficult births
  • Prostate enlargement in men,
  • Muscle relaxants, blood pressure reducers, diuretics, sedatives, drugs taken against
  • depression, allergy medications,
  • Dementia alzheimer’s disease
  • Disease of the nervous system
  • Fistula between vagina and bladder. (here the patient leaks urine from her vagina)

 

Urinary incontinence in women

Urinary incontinence may occur in women who have given birth too much, after menopause or difficult deliveries. Sometimes it can be seen even in women who have never given birth. Hereditary characteristics of urinary incontinence have also been demonstrated. Especially; They lose their urine in cases of heavy lifting, coughing, sneezing, and severe laughing. Urinary bladder sagging may occur due to difficult deliveries.

 

 

How is urinary incontinence diagnosed?

First of all, detailed history is taken from the patient. The situations that initiate urinary incontinence and the type and frequency of urinary incontinence are learned. To the patient; Blood sugar, urinalysis and urine culture, ultrasound, and urodynamics may be ordered. If another underlying cause is thought, examinations are performed for it.

 

How is urinary incontinence treated?

If the patient is overweight, he / she is weakened with an appropriate diet and exercise program. If the cause is constipation, the diet is regulated and medication is given. The reason for uncontrolled diabetes is the medication and diet of the patient. Excessive fluid intake is prevented. Patients who use excessive smoking and alcohol are asked to reduce them. Urinary tract infections are treated with appropriate antibiotics. Exercises to strengthen the bladder and pelvic muscles are recommended. These exercises are based on the principle of holding and releasing urine while urinating.

There are also drug treatments used in cases of urinary incontinence. These are given to suitable patients by urologists. If urinary incontinence is caused by a condition such as prostate enlargement, bladder prolapse, surgery may be considered.



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