Acne occurs as a result of the obstruction and swelling of the ducts that secrete sebum in the middle layer of the skin and then become inflamed with bacteria. Blackheads (comedones) occur as a result of increased oil secretion in the skin and clogging of the pores. Later, these comedones become infected with bacteria and raised red and inflammatory bumps form on the skin. Extremely large ones leave marks on the skin.
Acne usually begins in adolescence and can extend into the thirties and forties. There is also a benign type of acne specific to infancy. It is more common in men than in women. The most common; It is seen on the face, back, arms and chest.
What are the factors affecting acne formation?
In the formation of acne; Genetics, nutrition, environmental factors and hormones play a role. The role of the testosterone hormone in both sexes is known. In some cases, testosterone hormone is high, in some cases testosterone is normal, but the response of fat cells to testosterone is high. Acne in one of the parents makes it easier to develop acne in their children. Some drugs, especially hormone drugs, have acne enhancing properties. In some cases, excessive oily skin is the main factor. Poor quality cosmetics, foods high in sugar and fat can increase acne.
What are the types of acne?
Acne Vulgaris are simple acne that usually occurs in adolescents. Rather, they are seen on the face. They appear as black spots, red pimples, sometimes deep cysts and nodules on the skin. Scar development can be minimized with early treatment.
Acne Conglabata is a type of acne characterized by severe cysts and abscesses. It is mostly seen on the trunk. Polycystic Ovarian disease may be accompanied by excessive hair growth and menstrual irregularity. Acnes leave deep scars.
Acne Fulminans is a disease characterized by fever and joint pain and severe acne seen in adolescent boys.
Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of acne
Acne, especially severe cases, may accompany some diseases. Therefore, it should not be considered as a cosmetic problem only. Along with acne, girls may have excessive hair growth, menstrual irregularity, type 2 diabetes, ovarian cysts. In these cases, hormonal tests must be performed and the treatment of the underlying disease is required. Acne may occur due to excessive hormone release in adrenal tumors.
Acne may occur due to occupational or chemical exposure. Exposure to heavy oils, grease, polyvinyl chloride, chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons and tar can cause acne. Sudden and severe acne formation can be observed after the use of some drugs. In this case, the diagnosis is made by history. Antibiotic-resistant acne may occur in those who use strong antibiotics for a long time.
How is acne treatment done?
Cream and oral forms of drugs called Retinoids can be used in the treatment of acne. Effective skin cleansing should be done to ensure the sebum balance of the skin. Antibiotics also have a place in acne treatment. Cream or oral form may be preferred. Drugs have been developed to suppress the activity of the sebaceous glands and prevent the formation of new comedones.
Untreated acne can cause both cosmetic and mental problems by creating scars. Chemical peeling, microdermabrasion, dermaroller and laser peeling can be used to remove acne scars.
How should spotty skin care be?
It should be washed twice a day with special soaps or cleansing gel solutions for the face. Spotty skin is very sensitive to spot formation, so oil-free sunscreen should be used. These creams also prevent irritation by moisturizing the skin. Oil-free moisturizers can be used to deal with the dryness and irritation caused by acne medications.